Download Sites for Relevant Software Utilities:

Adobe Home: Free Adobe Acrobat PDF Viewer and Related Products.

Ghostview + Ghostscript: University of Wisconsin Free Postscript or PDF Viewer.

GNU Home: Free GNU Software: GunZIP (uncompresses .gz files) and other utilities.

Ulead Photo Impact Viewer: Freeware high-quality TIFF file viewer for Win 95, NT 3.51 or later. Download, rename to ".exe", and install. Provided AS-IS and without SIU-C endorsement.
CAUTION: Redraw after resizing a high-resolution window may seem to freeze the system: Be patient!

Gray 1921, p. 92:  Magnetometer Design

Links to Pulfrich-Related Sites Independent of SIU-C:

Some of the sites below advertise products or services.
No commercial product or service is endorsed by SIU-C.

Copyright to any work referenced here is reserved by the site referenced.
Please use the referenced site to decide whether copying is permitted.

Newly added links are at the end of each category . . ..

Publishing Houses:
The Optical Society of America: Abstracts are available online free of charge; a subscription or per-article fee is required for full text access.
Note that the Journal of the Optical Society of America (JOSA) was split into JOSA A and JOSA B in about 1979. Vision-related articles will be found primarily in JOSA A.
The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO): Abstracts are free online for Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science; full-text access requires a subscription. All access to the online-only Journal of Vision is free.
The British Society for the History of Science (BSHS): In addition to history-related educational activities (time-travel available only in the future), there are numerous links to resource sites, including the British Journal for the History of Science, affiliated with Cambridge University Press (linked below).
The Astronomiae Historia / History of Astronomy: This site, based at the University of Bonn, is online in German and English languages, although many of the postings are available only in one of those languages. The site includes online papers and links.
The Science History Publications, Ltd.: This specialty publisher has sample issues online, as well as tables of contents of future issues.
The Cambridge University Press provides free online guest access to abstracts from its many academic journals. Full text reprints of the articles are available for download by author or institutional subscription.
The American Institute of Physics is the publishing arm of the American Physical Society, the Optical Society of America, and many other related organizations. Several of its journals permit free online access to selected articles.

Clinical or Medical Applications
Physiological Correlate of the Pulfrich Effect, by Thom Carney, Michael A. Paradiso, and Ralph D. Freeman A physiological correlate of the Pulfrich effect in cortical neurons of the cat. Vision Research, 1989, 29, 155-165.
Using the Pulfrich effect to compare luminance-dependent processing delays in colour vision, by S. Mackie and M. R. Baker Online research paper. University Laboratory of Physiology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT, UK.
Link to the U. S. National Eye Institute Cataract Resource Page This page includes an overview discussion of human cataracts. The delayed development of Carl Pulfrich's monocular blindness, which he believed was caused by an eye injury, may be rather common in the course of development of cataract. The photograph illustrating a scene viewed by a "person with cataract" unfortunately just shows defocus and should be ignored.
Blinding Flashes, a NASA medical posting Astronauts exposed to cosmic rays outside the Van Allen belt see random flashes of light. Space-radiation damage to the lens of the eye causes cataracts to develop after a delay of many years after exposure.
Theory, Academic, or Discussion
Visual latency difference determined by two 'Rotating' Pulfrich techniques, by Nakamizo S, Nickalls RWD, and Nawae H. In Swiss Journal of Psychology, 2004, 63, 201-205.
The influence of target angular velocity on visual latency difference determined using the rotating Pulfrich effect, by R. W. D. Nickalls. In Vision Research, 1996, 36, 2865-2872.
A Physiological Model for Motion-stereo Integration and a Unified Explanation of the Pulfrich-like Phenomena, by Ning Qian and Richard A. Andersen In Vision Research, 1997, 37, 1683-1698.
Influence of Peripheral on Central Stereopsis: An Induced Depth Tilt Effect, by S. Muller and E. R. Wist In European Conference on Visual Perception (ECVP97), 1997 Abstract of an Oral Presentation on Binocularity and Stereopsis, Tu11.15.
Precision of the rotating Pulfrich technique for determining visual latency difference is significantly greater if viewing distance is varied than if angular velocity is varied, by S. Nakamizo, H. Nawae, and R. W. D. Nickalls In European Conference on Visual Perception (ECVP98), 1998 Abstract of a Poster Presentation on Temporal Processes, Session A.
A conic theorem generalised: directed angles and applications, by R. W. D. Nickalls For download of a PDF file of the full text of the 2000 paper in The Mathematical Gazette, 2000, 84, pp. 232 - 241 (July issue). Other discussions of Nickalls' Theorem also are available at the Pulfrich Effect site.
Two-Dimensional Curve Site, by Jan Wassenaar This page places Nickalls' Theorem in a mathematical context, while briefly explaining the rotating Pulfrich effect.
The site is a collection of 2-dimensional mathematical curves put together by a Java programmer and information technologist.
Joint-encoding of motion and depth by visual cortical neurons: Neural basis of the Pulfrich effect, by Akiyuki Anzai, Izumi Ohzawa and Ralph D. Freeman In Nature Neuroscience, 2001, 4, 513 - 518.
The authors report findings of joint responsiveness to motion and binocular retinal disparity in the cat. They propose that cells of the kind involved may mediate motion parallax as a depth cue, as well as the Pulfrich Effect.
Lick Science Projects;
Mt. Hamilton Observatory, including a webcam connection.
These are links to the Lick Observatory on Mount Hamilton, California.
SLAC web site. This is a link to the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) website; the site includes seminars and tours open to the public, as well as information concerning current research activities.
The flash-pulfrich effect, by Christopher R. L. Cantor The paper abstracted here describes a new visual illusion which depends on latency somewhere in the visual system, but which latency does not seem to depend on target average luminance. The position of a flashed image seems to lag behind that of a continuously-presented one.
Simon Newcomb, America's first great astronomer, by William E. and Merri Sue Carter. This biographical sketch summarizes the career of Simon Newcomb, including his contributions to the use of photography to overcome individual differences of observers, and his ideas on how to estimate the speed of light.
Human Factors
Baseball Curveballs 'Break' Near Plate Only in Batters' Minds, Study Says, by Elizabeth Lopatto. A report of research led by Zhong-Lin Lu and published recently in PLoS One.

The latency differences between parafoveal and foveal vision affect a baseball's perceived location [because of the spin of the ball's stitch pattern]. The result is an apparent curve in the path of the pitched ball as it nears the batter. The curve is not seen if the batter keeps fixated on the ball during its entire delivery.

Baseball Hitting, Binocular Vision, and the Pulfrich Phenomenon, by Albert J. Hofeldt, MD; Frank B. Hoefle, MD; Ben Bonafede In AMA Archives of Ophthalmology, 1996, 114, 1490 - 1494. This paper studies the question of whether dimming the light to one eye affects baseball hitting (motion-in-depth) and if binocular interaction influences the ability to hit a baseball. A dominant eye for motion stereopsis is defined. Abstract only online.
Computer or Other Video Animation
Motional visual illusions on-line, by Nickalls RWD, Kazachkov AR, Vasylevska Yu.V and Kalinin VV (2002). In Journal of Digital Contents, 2003, 1(1) (Proceedings of the ICTE conference, Badajoz, Spain; November 2002).
4D Computer Output, by Don Herbison-Evans, Faculty of Applied Science, Central Queensland University (updated 22 September 1999): Animation of 3D images by computer. Monocular techniques discussed are: hidden lines and surfaces, depth cuing, background blurring, perspective, surface shading,and temporal parallax.
Mark Newbold's Java Stuff;
or, his Pulfrich Page
Animated Necker Cube; Counter-Rotating Spirals Illusion; Stereoscopic Animated Hyperspace Objects; HyperCube, 24-Cell Object, Cross-Polytope, Simplex, The Pulfrich Illusion.
Based on Java applets.
Three-Dimensional Stereographic Visual Displays in Marketing and Consumer Research (1997), by Morris Holbrook General discussion of 3-D commercial applications, including the Pulfrich Effect. PDF document download. In the online Academy of Marketing Science Review.
960p 3-D, by Mark J. Pescatore (2002) Briefly describes the technology of 3-D TV, using LCD shuttered spectacles.
3D Expo Described as "the future site for premier 3D stereoscopic images, information, and entertainment".
"... Some portions of an episode of '3rd Rock from the Sun' on NBC were aired using the Pulfrich effect in May of 1997. The result was very effective. Copies of the tape can be ordered at"
Pulfrich Roses, by David Starkman & John Dennis Reprinted from the July/August 1998 issue of Stereo World.
". . . one of the few encouraging and thoughtful Pulfrich applications was seen in an episode of Third Rock From the Sun several months ago."
Morris B. Holbrook's Home Page, by Morris B. Holbrook Miscellaneous articles including many on 3-D techniques, and on business and artistic 3-D applications.
Psychotic Reaction, by Aaron Ross "Dr. Yo" uses the Pulfrich and other 3-D methods in multimedia-based art, including animations, videotapes, and music.
An article on a new company, Tyzx, in Silicon Valley The plan is to manufacture a stereo 3-D 'DeepSea' chip for robotic vision and similar computerized applications.
Will it be able to demonstrate the Pulfrich Effect?
Guy Malherbe's Stereoscopic Site This site (in French) includes several links to 3-D movies demonstrating the Pulfrich effect in landscape vistas and other travel scenes; such lateral motion makes Pulfrich 3-D most effective. The site explains how to view ordinary TV or movies in a semblance of 3-D. There also is some advice on making movies in Pulfrich 3-D.
Professor Pulfrich's Universe (San Francisco Exploratorium Guide) PROFESSOR PULFRICH'S UNIVERSE is described as an Artist-in-Residence piece containing many different moving objects. The shadows of these moving objects, viewed with a piece of smoked glass over one eye, give the perception of depth.
3D Company (commercial site: Sells glasses) The Pulfrich 3D effect and Switchable Glasses: The Pulfrich effect creates a 3D effect from normal television sometimes, if the viewer is wearing special glasses.
Rainbow Symphony (commercial site: Sells glasses) Pulfrich 3D Glasses - 3D effect based on the phenomenon of Dark and Clear lenses.
Binocular Vision and Space Perception with the Optometer's Sketchpad, by Martin S. Banks This software program accompanies a course in optometry at the University of California, Berkeley. The course includes the Pulfrich Effect and other aspects of depth perception.
Binocular Vision and Stereopsis, by Ian P. Howard and Brian J. Rogers This link from the NASA Human Performance Laboratory advertises a book published in 1995 by Oxford University Press and includes a very extensive downloadable file of references on binocular vision.
The Chromadepth Scientific Visualization Gallery, by Mike Bailey The San Diego Supercomputing Center presents a gallery of images for use with ChromaDepth(TM) glasses, which incorporate microoptical lens elements which use color to "create a stereo pair from a single image".
The Film Foetus Company in Chicago Popular producer and director D.P. Carlson is marketting a video DVD entitled, "Chicago Filmmakers on the Chicago River". The DVD includes a pair of Pulfrich viewing spectacles. Not only does this DVD examine the creative processes of Chicago moviemakers - producers, directors, writers; but, "You’ve never seen the Chicago River like this before!".
The DVD includes a tutorial on how to use the Pulfrich spectacles, as well as a sequence of waterward interviews, usually in gliding motion.
There are three independent soundtracks: One with the interview voices; a second with geographic context of the scenery (great for Chicago geography!); and, a third with uninterrupted background music.
The three-D effect makes the view much more striking than it would be otherwise. However, one of this writer's heroes, Andrew Davis (Above the Law, Under Siege; Chain Reaction) only stands out in the DVD as merely a human being.

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The Pulfrich Effect, SIU-C. Last updated 2010-10-15